The XX century was an era of great upheaval and awakening in Kazakh society. This is the time when the minds of the people began to grow and open up their literacy. The issues of educational work, the press, culture were discussed. These works were performed by sons who sympathized with the people, who were the sour cream and breadwinner of the country.
The people who lived under the oppression under the Russian Empire longed for freedom. There was a threat of forgetting one's own language, religion and mentality. The Russian Kingdom was going to turn the Kazakh people into mangroves. However, these thoughts did not come to fruition. Alikhan Bukeikhan, A. Baitursynuly, I. Zhansugurov, Magzhan Zhumabayev, B. Mailin, S. Seifullin helped the Kazakh people to learn, develop their thinking, and get on their feet. Since the readings at that time were in Russian, Arabic and Persian, the Kazakh language remained outside. Therefore, both in the press and in their works, they used the Kazakh language as much as possible and helped Kazakhs not to forget their language and religion. He wrote a lot of works for the people. Today, the descendants know by heart the legacy of such talented and great ancestors. Thus, the Kazakh became Kazakh, gained independence.
There were not a few of us who lived in such a difficult winter and were innocently accused. Among them is a name that came without a name and is not known to many. He Is Berniyaz Kuleyevich.
Speaking about the environment in which Kuleyuly Berniyaz grew up, we cannot pass by the manuscript-memoir of his contemporary, comrade Mergali Yeshmukhamedov, which he handed over to the M. O. Auezov Institute of literature and art of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR in 1967. The poet was born in 5 villages of the Burte volost, belonging to the Aktobe District of the former Turgai region. In 1899, at the turn of the century, at the beginning of the twentieth century, full of turbulent and noisy events, in a fruitful time when the Kazakh intelligentsia was born, Berniyaz Kuleyuly also opened the doors of the world.
In the above-mentioned memoirs, M. Yeshmukhamedov notes that his father Beken was a man with a round peasant, but he came from the village, that is, from the environment where the poet came from, a lot of educated, nationalist citizens. Since the memoir was written during the Soviet era, it is mentioned only that Sagyndyk Doszhanov, the poet's cousin, was engaged in educational activities, teaching children. In fact, both Sagyndyk Doszhanov and his sister, Akkagaz Doszhanova, who was the first highly educated doctor among Kazakh girls, were not only friends of Alash arys, but also Alash figures who were crucified for independence. In addition, there were citizens who graduated from medresse "Galiya" and medresse "Husainia" in the same region. It is known that such educated people read the most influential Kazakh publications of that time, the magazine "Aikap", the leader of the nation "Kazakh". This environment had a beneficial effect on the growth of Berniyaz from a young age, hearing the words of the people, the future of the country, and mourning.
One of the Alash intelligentsia, under the direct influence of his cousin Doszhanovs, Berniyaz studied at a rural school. According to M. Yeshmukhamedov, in the fall of 1915, Berniyaz entered the Russian-Kazakh School of two classes in Burte. At this time, Kuleyu, who got acquainted with the classics of Russian literature, grew up as a child, memorized old examples of Kazakh literature, listened a lot to zhyr-legends and fairy tales, and was well acquainted with Islamic values and the songs of Akhmet, Mirzhakyp, the leading Aryans of Alash, took an example from them and grew up in the colostrum of the Kazakh fertile word. It is clearly visible from the powerful phrases that he pulled out of the barrel.
The famous event of 1916, followed by the February Revolution of 1917, has a strong impact on Berniyaz. Mergali Yeshmukhammedovich writes about this: "1917, the first days of March. Although the two-class school was located about 100 km from Orenburg or bar, due to the difficulty of communication, the village did not have good news, it was late. And although various nicknames spread throughout the country about the events in the city, no one knew that a coup was carried out and the King was deposed. Feeling it, the local governors would try to hide from the public. One evening, a number of newspapers came to my house, which I had picked up. There was no one else in the hall in the middle of the class rooms on either side, and Berniaz sat alone and read the newspaper, and there was a revolution in Peterburg. From the Romanovs, who ruled Russia for 300 years, The Last Tsar Nicholas II was dethroned. This was reported in full in the then Progressive-Democratic newspaper "time". It is said that the King's judgment crushed the people called buratana. The further you read it, the more angry Berniyaz becomes. When he looks up after reading the newspaper, he catches his eye at the pictures of Nicholas II, his wife in gilded frames, beautifully painted with paint, hanging on the wall of the Hall. Without thinking, he flies up from his seat and begins to tear off two new pictures and crumble them...».
The events of 1916 and1917 must have especially excited the heart of young Berniyaz. He perceives those years, full of special fateful unrest, as the White year of liberation, freedom. but it is noticeable that freedom was not "a harbinger of a new life, welcoming the October Revolution", as our scientists such as Beisenbai Kenzhebayev and Isaac Dyusenbayev forced to say in the manner of the times, but rather hoped for National Liberation after the February Revolution.
And the fact that the October Revolution was perceived by the inhabitants of the Great Steppe "like a message of death" is clearly reflected in the media of its era. It is clear that the young nationalist poet, who wants to serve his nation with hot blood, does not go far from the "wish of Alash". But we have nothing but gratitude to our degdar native brothers, who found the names of the Times and remembered the name of the poet Berniyaz Kazakh. Only we perceive everything by the power of independent, unrestrained consciousness.
In 1918, Berniyaz Kuleyevich came to Aktobe to restore his health and rest. The first biographer of the poet Mergali Yeshmukhamedov said about this: "a small wooden house of his father Beken was on the edge of the village. Two or three poplars grew in front of the window, the other side is Karasu, where the Duck-Goose accompanying its chicks. In asapanda, along the Urals, to the north, in various singing kubland, there are November geese, cranes. Kok maysaly, which starts from the edge of the village, is a lush pasture, a wide steppe. At dawn, as the sun rises, or in the evening, when the sun approaches the horizon, in a wide field at dusk, Berniyaz sits in a chair covered in a robe in front of an open window, thinking deeply and clicking a tambourine. Ink, paper, pen on the table next to him..."I'm sorry," he said. In fact, this Mergali brother is also not a free person. This is what the skill of writing skills suggests. As a result, the poet was able to express his unique moments on paper, like an eagle with wings on inspiration.
The year 1919 brings great changes not only to the Kazakh steppe, but also to the life of the poet. In the Great Steppe, the power of the Bolsheviks begins to be established as a whole. On the basis of a special decree of Lenin, in the same year in Orenburg, alibi Zhangeldin created a Military Revolutionary Committee that headed the Kazakh steppe. In the midst of such great political and historical events, Berniyaz, who is only twenty years old, finds himself in the midst of these events. The Voice of the same RevCom, as one of the organizers of the newspaper "spark", becomes a member of the editorial board. The first number is B. This newspaper, published by kuleyuly with a well-known poem "To The Spark", was the language of the government from the very beginning. in history, the name of the newspaper has changed several times to "Labor flag", "enbekshi Kazakh", "judicial Kazakhstan", "sovereign Kazakhstan", "sovereign Kazakhstan". In addition to the articles published by the poet in this newspaper, We should note The consecutive poems "El erlerga", "alga", "Kul", "Zaman-AI".
Alash figures who had no other desires in the interests of the nation, no other dreams of the future of the country, especially representatives of the second wave of Alash, led by Simagul Sadvakas, find a compromise with the Bolsheviks for the future of the nation and take an active part in creating a state. Only now the established comunists will have to work with them if they count on it. In 1920, on the instructions of the people's Commissariat of education of Kazakhstan and its commissioner Akhmet Baitursynov, he went to Kazan to direct the publication of textbooks and fiction versions. In those years, under the direct leadership of Berniyaz, we cannot fail to mention the publication of collections of works by Abay, Sultanmakhmut, Magzhan, Saken. It was Berniyaz Kuleevich who first published a collection of poems by sultanmakhmut Toraigyrovich (October, 1922, Tatarstan publishing house). The collection includes poems" lost life"," poor"," Aitys".
At the head of such a responsible, socio-cultural case, the poet will be until the end of his life, that is, until 1923. On January 29, 1923, the poet's life ended in a deplorable state, with a tragic death. At the age of only 24, during the conspiracy, the poet Berniyaz Kuleevich passed away. It is known that the reason for the early departure of the poet was a hot and sad love story that happened to him. In Kazan, in the twenties, there was a large Cultural Center, Organized by the Tatar intelligentsia, called The "Oriental Club", where young people exchanged views on poetry, theater, music, etc. Zeynep Akhmerova, who was the favorite of B. Kuleyuly, also regularly came to the parties organized by this center. He was a student of the Medical Faculty of Kazan University.
B. Kuleyuly also came and went to these parties. Berniyaz and Zeynep probably met here. The back of the acquaintance is accompanied by a feeling of great love. The two will be about to join. But this decision of the Young will be strongly opposed by Zeynep's parents. Devastated by this, the two young men shoot themselves to death. This tragic death is reported in the newspaper "Izvestia tat tsika" (January 31, 1923 No. 21), in the Tatar-language newspaper "Tatarstan" ("sad event"/ February 1, 1923, No. 24/689/). However, there were also researchers who were looking for a political background in this event. S. In his book "Kazakh literature of the twentieth century", published in 1932, mukanov wrote: "Berniyaz could not stand the Iron Age of the proletariat. The proletarian-dominated existence in the bar was felt by his scarce heart. So he died." Of course, the roots of this word are clear to the blind. therefore, we will not dwell on it.
"I don't know," he said, " but I don't know.".."from the central state archive of the Tatar Assr on the case related to the death of Takan B. Kuleyuly (TASSR-OMA-fund, p3870, list 3,118 cases:
1. B. Kuleyuly and Z. Akhmerova shot themselves.
2. The Girl of the law initiated a case on the murder of employees B. Kuleyuly and Z. Akhmerova.
3.in order to achieve the truth of the issue, a forensic medical examination was carried out.
The first thing that can be seen from all the documents is that B. Kuleyuly and Z. Akhmerova said goodbye to each other, wrote letters to relatives and killed themselves. The letter read: "We ask you not to consider anyone guilty of our death."
In the article of Galym Akhmedov, one of the writers who did not write about the death of the poet, published in the newspaper "Kazakh literature" under the title "a few words about the death of Berniyaz", a valuable source is given. Berniyaz falls in love with a Tatar girl and adds cheer. The girl's parents object to the reunion of two young people who loved each other. Then two young people say that if we do not join each other, we do not need anyone. "They arrive at Berniyaz's apartment at 1 am. Berniyaz eagerly writes something on a piece of paper on the table, pulls Nagan and browning out of the desk drawer, and shoots them both. "Shoot me first," the girl says.He says so, and with his eyes closed, he shoots the girl sitting opposite him from the heart, spending the second bullet in his own heart."
So is this love drama the cause of Berniyaz's death? I wonder if only a love drama was the reason for the inability of two young people to part with life, or rather suicide with cold weapons, or were there any other reasons?
It seems that the words of M. Zhumabayev are the answer to this idea. "We don't know what caused bernias to end his life at his own hands. However, there is no reason why youth, especially discipline, is born from a lack of proper upbringing. If so, then more and more social people blame the young soul for taking such a path. The socialite is accused of not being able to set a straight path, not being able to educate correctly. It is he who gives a gun to the hands of a alas-deprived young soul. This must be understood. It is necessary to be upset not why our hopeful age left early, but why you left early.
Sin is not yours, - many,
I wish your soul would be calm, young guard!"ends the poet's article. About the cases after the death of the poet pofessor B. Kenzhebayev in the research book "from the Turkish kaganate to the present day", the following memoir tells:"...During his time as a representative of the Kazakhstan educational commissariat in Kazan, he fell in love with a Tatar girl and fell into the arms of sadness... It is also better to look for the cause of the death of berniyaz in this area. Because this is a fact that does not have any doubts. We were then students at the Communist University of the workers of the rising sun (KUTV). We know the poems of berniyaz. The boy Sherniyaz, who studied with us, moved to Kazan to study. When the boy went to Kazan to study, he was killed by Berniyaz. "I don't know," he said, " but I don't know what to say." then he returned to himself. Then he would say: "it turns out that the whole Kazan knows Berniyaz. It turns out that there are a lot of books and papers left behind. My mother came and took me away. It turns out that the love drama was also a reality. As we can see from this fact and the documentary data cited by Arap Espenbetov above, it is true that there was no "political step" in this tragic death.
It is noted that the untimely death of B. Kuleyuly is now especially painful for the Kazakh intelligentsia, who are "lining up for Taspikka". The great poet of Alash Magzhan Zhumabayuly publishes a mourning article and a dedication poem in the newspaper" correspondent".
"We do not know what caused berniyaz to end his life at his own hands. However , there is no doubt that there is one reason that comes from youth, especially from a lack of proper upbringing. If so, then more and more social people blame the young soul for taking such a path. a socialite who did not manage to lead a straight path, did not manage to educate a straight one. It is he who gives a gun to the hands of a alas-deprived young soul. It must be understood. It is necessary to be upset about why our hopeful age left early, and not why it left early. sin is not in you, but in many. I wish your soul would be calm, young guard!"- says Magzhan Zhumabayuly to the untimely death of his pen pal brother. In the issue of the newspaper" Akzhol "dated February 22, 1923, Magzhan's poem" to Berniyaz " was published. In January 1923, issue No. 19 of the newspaper" Enbekshi Kazakh "published an article on the topic" Kuleyuly Berniyaz". Professor B. Kenzhebayev in the above work related to the tragic fate of Berniyaz:"...Then I went to Kazan for research purposes. I once again asked such Tatar scientists as M. Gainullin and Yarmukhamedov about the situation. They know everything about Berniyaz, his poetic heritage, and his loving death. I was told the truth again. The Tatar people composed a song called "Nagan zhyr" for the love of Berniyaz and the girl. "I don't know," he said.
Thus, the talented poet of Alash, berniyaz Kuleevich tlektes, who had great hopes for the future, led his pen friends and everyone, and on January 29, 1923, at the age of only 24, his poetry flowed like a comet.
It is based on the data of Mergali Yeshmukhamedovich, who wrote The Biography of the poet Berniyaz. But in the statement of the poet's mother Gusnizhan to the deputy chairman of the prizdum of the Great Soviet of Kazakhstan Yermagambetova on May 13, 1941, "my only child, Berniyaz, died in 1923 at the age of 23. after the death of my son, I went to the arms of my daughter. my daughter also died in 1926..."the fact that he wrote in his own hand, which is said, makes us think. We accept this fact as correct. Because the daughter-in-law of the village of Kuley, who was literate and educated like the Doszhan dynasty, was not mistaken in the year of birth of her only son.
The first time he held the pen behind him, the eternal songs of Berniyaz, who "fixed the awakened hope" of his brother Magzhandai in one line, remained "a strong bulwark of our literature". The last poem of the poet, written a few days before his death, was the poem "Al, My Heart Will Die", which was dated at 5 pm on January 21, 1923. This stanza of Berniyaz Kuleyuly, who was born at home and died in the desert, is a reflection of a moment of joyful attention that he missed in the distance. The power of the word gives the poet the impression that he is predicting an untimely death.
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