Apart from his literary work, Zhambyl has a rich legacy in his personal life. There are a lot of photos and chronicle videos of Zhambyl Zhabayev. Also, there are the products they consume in life are mountains and hills. And, it is stored without a roof. In this regard, in honor of the 175th anniversary of the great poet Zhambyl Zhabayev, we present a material about the literary-memorial museum of the poet.
When Zhambyl was old, it was suggested to move to Almaty. Then, the great poet said, “Will you copy me? If you want, I can go myself, I was born from this Uzynagash soil. May I get the place where I lie rest on this soil”.
The 75th anniversary of the creative art of the poet Zhambyl was celebrated in 1938. To mark the anniversary, the government will build a 12-room house for the poet. Under, it rides a car MK M1. At that time, only six people in Kazakhstan had this car. I want to be one of them. The same car is still in the garage of the Literary Memorial Museum named after Zhambyl Zhabayev. And, if you start a fire now, it's going to go crazy right now. It was completely overhauled in 2008.
Good. In 1938, Zhambyl was not only given a house like a khan's palace, but the government took the poet under the full state protection. The poet's personal doctor, nurse, kitchener and literary secretaries will be appointed soon.
During the lifetime of the poet Zhambyl, there were no guests in his house. The masters of literature and art Mukhtar Auezov, Sabit Mukanov, Baurzhan Momyshuly, Malik Gabdullin and others came and went at that time. On one occasion, a distant botanist, academician Keller presented the poet with a set of blue tea in 1938. During the World War II, the Big Theater in Moscow was evacuated to Almaty. In 1942, the actors of that theater – film director Sergei Eisenstein and the famous ballerina Galina Ulanova presented a samovar, bow and tray to Zhambyl`s family. And in 1944, the Russian artist A.A. Rittich painted and presented to the poet the creation, called “Zhambyl among the collective farmers”.
As we have already mentioned, in 1938, along with the two nurses who supervised the health of the poet, he appointed a doctor Rakhimbay Dossymbekov. The poet says in one of his poems:
You are kind to me,
The disease affects everyone.
Both knees do not slip,
It was sad to go out.
The belongings of the poet are considered as preserved. A few words about the number of them: a stick, dombra, frog shoes, kind of moccasins and the hat. In 1937, the poet Zhambyl visited Georgia on the 750th anniversary of the poem by Shoto Rustaveli “Hero in the skin of the tiger”. During the visit, the literary secretary Tair Zharokov presented the beautiful, silver-embossed brown stick. Zhambyl Zhabayev died on June 22, 1945, at 7.55 am. It is said that the clock in the poet's room stopped at the same time. And, the poet says about his companion – the dombra:
Ink tank, without pen
An inspiring dombra.
Notebook book, paperless
The dombra in question, – he thinks.
There are three dombras of the poet that have reached until today. Both are in his museum. The third dombra is in the Museum of National Instruments named after Ykylas in Almaty. The dombra of the poet, which was in the bedroom on this day, was presented in 1936 by the students of KazPI.
All the songs that came out of his mouth have been written since 1936. Abdilda Tazhibayev was the first composer who recorded the song “My Homeland”. Then, in 1936-1938, Kalmakan Abdykadyrov was a person who regularly visited Zhambyl Ata and wrote his poems. The literary secretary of 1938-1940 was Tair Zharokov. From 1940 until the end of the poet's life Gali Ormanov was the literary secretary. Between 1936 and 1941, all of Zhambyl's poems were translated into Russian by Pavel Kuznetsov. In 1940, he was awarded by the Order of the “Badge of Honor”. After Kuznetsov left for the war in June 1941, Mark Arkadyevich Tarlovskiy, Dmitry Snegin, and Konstantin Altaiskiy began translating the poet's works. The office of literary secretaries in the literary-memorial museum of Zhambyl Zhabayev has a lot of antiques and memorabilia. For example, you can see a telephone installed in 1943, a bookcase attached to the stove, a carpet sketched by the famous artist Abilkhan Kasteyev and donated in 1938 by the Almaty Carpet Factory. In 1939, Varvara Maksimovich Grigorenko, a worker at the Leningrad Ceramics Plant, who visited the house, presented the poet with a blue vase. The owner of the gift painted a yurt outside the vase and a picture of nature sitting next to the poet Zhambyl. A blue vase in the secretary's office and a blue vase were donated by Uzbek poets and writers on the occasion of the poet's 140th birthday. In the form of an office there is an old radio set, called “SI”. It is said that the father, who sent his son Algadai to the war, was constantly listening to the news of the battle on “SI”.
There are many artists who painted the portrait of Zhambyl Zhabayev. One of them, an Uzbek girl Ismailova, made a table in 1938 depicting the things that the poet used to do during his lifetime. A father of Kazakh art, Abilkhan Kasteyev once said, “Zhambyl's appearance and songs remind me of the heroism of our people”.
A poet Zhambyl has been married three times. From his first wife Momin, he had the children named: Kozhak, Kozhash, Kozhamberdy, Kuntai; From his second wife Talkairat he had two children: Akkuly and Akbala. From his third wife Kanymzhan he has four sons, Algadai, Shynybai, Iztleu and Tezekbai. Nowadays, there are more than a hundred descendants of these sons and daughters. Algadai Zhambyluly died heroically in the Second World War, in 1943 in Sinelnikovo, Ukraine. Iztleu Zhambyluly also went missing during the war. The youngest son Tezekbay Zhambyluly died in 1985 at the age of 73.
Zhambyl's father Zhapa was an ordinary peasant. His mother is from Uldan Zhalayir. Uldan's brother was a kobyz player from Canada. As a child, Zhambyl fell asleep while tending sheep. Then he dreams. In his dream, an old man with a white beard came and asked, if he could play the dombra or the moth. Then Zhambyl woke up and said: “I can play the dombra!” seems to have shouted. However, Zhapa's father said to his son:
Fifty shamans, eighty poets,
He rides a horse in the morning.
Adding the sound of kobyz, dombra,
There is a saying that the bloom is close to the evening like a demon, and he is against the art of poetry, saying that you are not the eighty – first poet.
But the fate of Zhambyl was decided differently.
My friend Suyunbay,
Without praying with words,
Mysterious, beautiful words
Like a gift to me, - sang the poet Suyunbay, who was considered the “Golden pillar of the art of aitys” in his time, “Be honest, sing the truth, be close to your people!” accepted the prayer.
He is not the only student of Suyunbay. At that time there were such poets as Maikot, Kaban, Baktybay, Kulanayan Kulmambet in Jetisu. These giants, who began to rejoice and summed up Zhambyl, knew a lot of Kyrgyz songs and epics.
One of the most influential figures in Zhambyl's work was Sarybai Aidosuly (1821-1864). The first dance from Ekey. It unites the two countries. In his youth, Zhambyl dedicated a song to “Sarybai”.
Sareke, I put a word in your criticism,
Your critical scales are the secrets.
I took a dombra and demanded it
What price will you give to your son, – he passed by and received the prayer.
Zhambyl's aitys with Dosmaganbet, Kulmambet, Aikumis, Shybyl, Shashubai is very popular. The most famous of them is an aitys with Kulmambet. In 1881 a large gathering was held along the Ili River. Kulmambet, who won nine poets at the same meeting, invited Zhambyl to speak. Kulanayan Kulmambet said:
When I was a white falcon, you were a chicken
You are a rooster crowing from time to time.
Otherwise, don't be famous.
The rest should be stopped, keep warm, – said 35 years old Zhambyl.
Speak of humanity, speak of courage, speak of heroism.
Name the peace that preserves the unity of the country.
It is full of stingy people,
The rest should be put in a warm place, – he replied. It is said that Kulmanbet, who was spreading the words all around, stumbled for a moment. Zhаmbyl Bodan, who spoke with emphasis, continued saying:
– Oh, Kulmambet, Kulmambet!
Go with running water!
If you go by water, the country will drink!
Get out of the steam!
Then you will suffer,
Leave on a sunny day.
The sun will rise again,
Go away with the ashes from the fire!
Go away in the dark fog!.. – must have been suppressed.
When Zhambyl met Shashubai, he didn't sing much, because he just stopped there. When he returned to Balkash lake in those years, resentful of his brother in connection with some events in the country, he came to Almaty with songs of Shashubai, Shu, Ili, that passed through Arka. Singing the beautiful song of Arka, he turned Zhetisu to the mouth.
“I'm talking to everyone ...” he visited Alatau singing his song. At the gatherings of the Great Zhuzh, he praises his country, Arka. He is proud of such people as Baibulan, Bakiya, Barlybek, Turlybek, who came from Arka and became famous among the Great Zhuzh and became rich in the trade.
At the same time, Baibulan sent a message to Manke, a well-known Shapirashty district in the Alatau delta, and took Zhambyl to Almaty. An idea was to argue with Zhambyl and Shashubai. After hearing the news of Zhambyl's arrival in Almaty, Baibulan said, “Let Tamasha stay in my house”.
The son of Koshkarbai and Shashubai,
A God who made his subject more or less.
Take a sip of Almaty,
Baibulan was a rich guest.
My city is Troisky, Karkaraly,
Goes to the evening market to disperse.
A number of unexpected people came in.
Oh, there is a splendid thing inside this man,
Is there Zhambyl?
Is that splendid column? – he overturned with a harmonium, threw it back and hit Zhambyl, the people who accompanied Zhambyl.
Aitys had lasted for a long time. In conclusion, Shashubai obeys the precious and powerful words of Zhambyl.
According to Dosmagambet Mullah and Zhambyl, another aspect of the poet was revealed as well. Dosmagambet was educated in Turkestan and Bukhara madrassas and received an oriental religious education. So, it is not an easy opponent.
However, Zhambyl, who had five weapons of courage and truth, did not give in to Dosmagambet, but compared him to a sparrow, shielding him from the vultures and bending him among the bushes. Unreal mullahs expose the bad behavior and laugh at their ignorance. Dosmagambet had no choice but to defend himself. He spoke about Zhambyl's poverty, his old age and youth. But Dosmagambet still says that he could not find an answer to the sharpness and flow of Zhambyl's songs, and the accuracy of his thoughts as well...
Toktagul Satylganov (1864-1933) was a famous Kyrgyz poet and composer. The Kazakh met with Zhambyl many times. The poet also has a poem dedicated to Toktagul. Shabden Tore Zhanatayev was a manab of Kyrgyzstan, and the Russian colonel. In 1912, a big meal was served for this man. All Kyrgyz-Kazakh poets will take part in the dinner. Zhambyl was among them.
The “Red Kyrgyzstan” newspaper published an astonishing article in its April 18, 1938, issue: “What surprised us at this meeting was that Zhambyl knew the Kyrgyz komuz and its condition very well”.
He said that he had seen Tynybek and that no one could recite “Manas” like that.
Gold and silver
Created for a jeweler
Sheep and goats
Created for the sniper
At the age of seventy-five
Quilts like us
Created for you.
Muratali has been called the “Classic of country music”. He was born in 1860. Muratali Kurenkeyev, who “Played the dombra and played the kobyz”, died in 1949 in Frunze. Zhambyl and Muratali competed. Zhambyl played 13 tunes, Muratali played 15 tunes. “Have you ever lost a song – I lost to Muratali actual perpetrator”, – said the poet Zhambyl.
Zhambyl also sang about the heroism of Sauryk and Suranshy batyrs who fought against Kokand. In addition, there are songs such as “Otegen batyr”, “Karasai batyr”.
Sabit Mukanov, a prominent representative of Kazakh-Soviet literature, accompanied the hero Baurzhan Momyshuly to Zhambyl in order to bless the older people. In the same meeting S. Mukanov says, “This is your heroic son Baurzhan, who, like Ghazi Ghali, used to crush the enemy on the front”. Then, Bauken said: “The husband of the real man who killed so many Germans came from the war. Now he is going back to war. I greet you and take your blessing”, he said.
Zhambyl-Zhaken: “The color is too cold, maybe he is a hero!” He turned to Baurzhan and said: “If you are a hero, you are stronger than Otegen and Suranshy, tell me”. The hero said without hesitation: “He was a hero like a fire, and the stream of water. There is nothing stronger in the world than fire and water. I am not equal to either of them. I am just a spark of fire, a drop of water, Jake!” – he said.
In the literary-memorial museum of Zhambyl Zhabayev there is a dombra of the poet's childhood. It was cut down in about 1885. Also, among the exhibits were a red gown donated by artists of the Zhambyl Philharmonic, that Zhaken wore to Moscow twice, a gown worn by Turkmen and Uzbek poets, and writers in 1938 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the poet's work. Their national instrument is the komuz. By the way, here are the horses, whips and belts that the poet used in life.
The meeting of Zhambyl Zhabayev and Dina Nurpeisova is a big story that should not be overlooked. Dina arrives late in Zhambyl's village. It is said that a young boy led him. When someone from outside said, “Dina is coming”, Jake tried to get up and said, “Oh, let me go out in front of that old woman”. A cripple and an old woman greet each other. They hug and hug each other too. One said, “Congratulations on your award!” The other said, “I have been looking for you for a long time. Why are you lying down?" – he seems to say tenderly. The people around them laugh at the old woman's greetings and jokes. As he sat down at the table, he played the dombra:
It's been a long time, Dina, let's see you
Let's take the Order and climb it
At least you have a mood hook
Would you please fix that hanger? –
he began a song. Then with the help of Jake, our mother Dina played “Serper” by Kurmangazy. An old man, who could not get rid of the sweetness, said: “Dinazhan-ai, what a master of your hands!” – he smiled. The musician, Dina said: “Your words are in harmony with the words of my teacher Kuraken. He said, “If I had given Dina's left hand to someone with my right hand, there would not have been a better dombra player in the world”.
There are many followers of Zhambyl. They are: the famous Kenen Azerbayev, Umbetali Karibayev, Kyrykbay Zhartybayev, Esdaulet Kandekov, Kuat Teribayev. Mukhtar Auezov, Sabit Mukanov, Gabit Musrepov, Sapargali Begalin, Sultangali Sadyrbayev, Esmaganbet Ismailov are the first scientists to mention who laid the foundation of Zhambyl studies. Then, we will mention the next generation of researchers – Myrzatay Zholdasbekov, Mukhamedzhan Etekbayev, Nagashibek Kapalbekuly, Valikhan Kalizhan, Serik Negimov, Rafat Abdigulov, Tauirbek Surtayev, Ratbek Terlikbayev.
Zhambyl Zhabayev and the theme of the Second World War cover a significant period in the life of the poet. The sons of the Kazakh heroes Baurzhan Momyshuly and Malik Gabdullin, who were going to the war, were blessed by an old man. Also, the Kazakh poet Zhambyl Zhabayev received most of the letters from veterans. The museum has more than 500 such letters.
In 1941, when Leningrad was under the siege, the Kazakh poet Zhambyl Zhabayev wrote the famous song “Leningrad Orenim” in order to inspire and support the people of the besieged city.
You were my pride!
The Neva River is lovely!
I see it as a spring ... – until 1991, when the Soviet Union collapsed, the Soviet students read and memorized the textbook.
Zhambyl Zhabayev was awarded the medal “For the Defense of Leningrad” in 1943 for this poem.
At the beginning of the article we said that the masters who painted the image of Zhambyl on the canvas can be found not only in Kazakh, but in every country. To prove our point, let's list a number of works by the number of authors:
“Zhambyl is the father of poets”. An author is S. Kerimbekov, “Zhambyl's meeting with Furmanov” (Sukhov) 1950s, “A native village celebrates the 100th anniversary of the poet” (O. Tansykbayev), “Zhambyl and Dina” (Karpovskiy), “Zhambyl with children” (Yankovskiy), “Meeting with Stalin” (Simkin), “Portrait of Zhambyl” (Orazgaliyev), “Zhambyl in Georgia” (Simkin), “Zhambyl Zhabayev” (Torshin), “Zhambyl in the Presidium” (Karpovskiy), “Aitys of Zhambyl and Kulmambet” (Martova, Frolova). Also, the statue “Zhambyl on the horseback” was created by the famous architect Khakimzhan Nauryzbayev on the eve of the 125th anniversary of the poet.
When Zhambyl-Zhaken died, he bequeathed his body to be buried in an apple orchard near his house, not in the ancestral cemetery. The poet died on June 22, 1945 at the age of one hundred. His body was buried in the backyard of his house, apart from the general cemetery. In 1946, on the eve of the centenary, an 18-meter-high mausoleum with an oriental shape was erected on the head of Zhambyl. The mausoleum was designed by the National Artist of Kazakhstan Abilkhan Kasteyev. An architect was Belotserkovskiy, the chief architect of Almaty at that time.
The mausoleum was overhauled and in 1971, it was covered with white marble. In 1983, the dome was raised another 4 meters, and the splendor was even greater. On the eve of the 150th anniversary of the poet, a statue of a red tiger, who never ate himself, will be placed in front of the mausoleum, covered with decorative tiles specially imported from Iran.
Next to the poet Zhambyl, in accordance with his advices, lies the famous Kazakh composer, daulesker kuishi Nurgisa Tlendiyev.
This is the long and short (on paper) history of the literary-memorial museum of the poet, who sang the song “Zhambyl is my common name, the people are my real name”.