One of the most important channels of Kazakh literature is Kazakh literature in China. There is no doubt that a nation has only one literature and culture that has developed with great success. From the geographical side, we conditionally call Kazakh literature in China. According to the agreement on the division of the border between Russia and China, the eastern part of the Kazakh steppe was divided into two parts, and the whole Kazakh people went under the control of two different systems in the second half of the XIX century. This historical process, that has lasted for many years, had an impact in the Kazakh spirituality.
Kazakh literature in China also has its origins in a wide range of folklore, and continues in the same way as Abai, Shakerim, Ibray and Alash. A division of the Kazakh steppe and the various political turmoil at the turn of the century, a desire for the country, equality, independence, grief for the bloody oppression were reflected in different aspects of literature with different characteristics at the different epochs.
The main representatives of Kazakh literature in China of this period are the poets Umiruzak, Otarbay, Tolebay, Bozhek. Also, Shylby Komekuly, Akyt Ulimzhiuly, Asset Naimanbayuly, Kutbay akyn, Argynbek Apashbayuly, Kodek Maralbayuly, Tanzharyq Zholdyuly and continue to be. When the Chinese Red government was established, Askar Tatanayuly, Bukhara Tynyshbayuly, Nygymet Mynzhani, Dubek Shalgynbayuly, Kausylkan Kozybayuly were the most famous Kazakhs in the middle of the XX century. After the People's Republic of China has been found, the direction of Kazakh literature in China changed significantly. Such writers as Kazhygumar Shabdanuly, Rakhmetolla Apsheeuly, Magaz Razdanuly, Omargazy Aitanuly, Serik Qapshyqbayuly, Zadaqan Mynbayuly, Kumarbek Saharin, Azilbek Kinazbek gave a new impetus to the field of literature.
Of course, every literature has its roots and leaves. A continuity of traditions and generations, the laws of art development are the natural phenomenon in the literature. From this point of view, what did the powerful wave of Kazakh poetry in China in the 90s? What is the actual channel of our literature, sing and goal? This article will tell more or less about the direction in which the noble channel of literature was directed, how the national identity and inner turmoil collided, how criticism and mystery, type and character met, and how the artistic horizon opened up as well.
Azimkhan Tishanuly is a well-known researcher of Chinese literature, in his article "A Black House of Kazakh Poetry", he says: "A success of Kazakh literature today is due to this tradition of classical black poetry, that is on a par with the world." The Kazakh black verse, the powerful impulse of ancient poetry and narrator of folk tales, the revived spirit of oriental poems by Abai and Akyt, the Western artistic form, a unified system of historical artistic thinking allowed the young Kazakh poets in China to grow in the world art. They are especially noticeable in the voices of the shock wave, such as Murat Shaymaran, Kuanysh Daley, Murat Aues, Erlan Nurdyqan, Ularbek Daley, Bilisbek Abdirazak, Adalbek Akhmadi, Zhenis Shaken, Bolat Kabdygalym, Yntymak Sadu.
A ghazal program, written by the nightingales of Shiraz, who took the place in the oriental literature, that has become a golden pillar for many of our poets and hymns, is also received from today's poetry in a new form, new image and with Kazakh brown melody. It is especially reflected in the songs of Murat Shaymaran, the leader of this wave. He sings the song "Fairy Tale of the East".
Oh, my East is an impressive place,
A legendary day and month.
Knowing my name, I healed your fairy tale,
I imitated and constantly reminded you.
A morning that didn`t flow from your side is dark today,
I have an address, but I do not have a homeland
I rode a samruk in my dream (oh, sorry!)
I'm flying to the places, where the sun rises.
This is the word of the poet's heart. Mysterious earrings, the eastern sky full of beauty, the eastern steppe full of wisdom, the channel of great art sing the eastern soil with selflessness, sincerity, oriental darkness and arrogance. A freedom and unique melody of the poem show the true power of the art of speech. The poem has a figurative symbol. Under the phrase "I have a homeland, I have no homeland in my words", it seems that the "Foreigner" sneers the poet's bitter and lamentations for the imperialist prophecy go hand in hand? One of the most common artistic and rational approaches in the poetry of young Kazakh poets in China is to convey this idea indirectly and covertly. Besides that, they are supposed to use the keystrokes, metaphors, figurative techniques and ideas. We can see this genre in details from the poems "Black Dragon" by Erlan Nurdykanuly, "Kokzhal in the cage" by Kuat Asylbekuly, "Yermennin isi", “Saray” by Kuanysh Daley. This essence is revealed even more deeply in the poems "Complaint to Hafiz", "Ghazal of Nauay", "Moon", "Ballad of Truth". In general, Murat Shaymaranuly is a poet who perfectly embodied his style in Kazakh poetry, combining Kazakh black poetry and oriental pride, deep vision and romantic melody. Many young poets have grown out of his hip. For example, in the poet Murat's poem "Complaint to Hafiz", we can see the stubborn sparks of innocence in the voice of the poet's soul. It is not a mere imitation and worship, but understanding with an unselfish heart. We could say that it is a complex of creative creations, which bleeds into the roots of the ancient liberal East with the combination of high taste and skill. It is impossible not to mention a creative psychology and stylistic features of Murat Shaymaranuly. Most of his poems are romantic, long-winded songs that touch the horizon of a nostalgic spiritual world. No matter how you create something new in the world of words, its roots will not go away from the roots that have been formed over the centuries. Then you will not stray from that great channel, you will only find your own way and look at your own sky. From this point of view, it is gratifying that a poetic power of poet Murat is rooted in the roots of the nation. Kazakh naivety and pure heroism are combined not only with poet Murat, but also with young Kazakh writers in China. Omargazy Aytanuly, the falcon of the world of poetry, beautifully describes this delicate moment in his poem, called "Black Poem". "I'm not a stranger - my mother put me in my ears like a lamb. If I get lost in a new world, you will find me with that white milk,” he says with a special childhood love. Therefore, the main feature of the poet Murat is a national theme and rich national poetry. Let's read the song "Wormwood".
… I know you didn't bring it, it broke,
I'm still talking,
I will give up your native steppe disease,
I'll have the wormwood.
We talk a lot about the national poetry, we argue a lot, we write a lot. However, many of them do not stray from the primitiveness. And, the sincerity, purity, selfless nostalgia in this poem will inevitably enlighten your heart. The epithets and metaphors in the verses have a special color, and even the simple words have a different character. A word is sharpened and radiant. This is a poetic skill. The last generation of the poet's poems is more in harmony and rhythm than a cohesive rhyme. A melody of the poem is not adapted to the rhythm of his thoughts, but we notice a new flow of power that he writes slowly and with ninety thoughts. A poetic power of Murat's poems is clearly seen in his reflections, ballads and poems. From the thoughts of the poet, such as "Dog", "Bota", "Search for a place" it is possible to see clearly the needs, sorrows, present, future, futurity of a nation. A story of the "Dog" is like a poetic chronicle of an entire nation, and the fate of a black-eyed Kazakh in China imagines the story of a wise man who cried like a spoiled bull in the story of "Bota". Bota is a Kazakh. As a Kazakh Bota, she makes you feel helpless, if you are staring at a noisy city. When it comes to any work, it is true that we stand on it, and we rely on it. Two contradictory ideas are raised in the poet`s poem, “Voice of Kobyz”. An irreconcilable struggle and struggle between the spiritual world of mankind and the creative force is present throughout the work. There are many moments in the work, when the poet's romantic imagination prevails, that is dominated by myths.
Adalbek Ahmadi's poem "Babamnyn Basy" was like a red arrow shot from Makhambet's hill, that pierced the Chinese red power and helped to awaken the national consciousness and national interests of the country. Away from the Kazakh roots and Kazakh way of thinking, a poet expresses his grief to the descendants of the Kazakhs with his poisonous language from the point of view of its history and language. In general, such a great potential is the soul of the poet Adalbek. A whole text of his poems is connected with the national civilization. Its eloquent language, artistic color, delicate, figurative rhythm, like a spring flowing from a mountain, touches the heart of the reader, stirs your mind and burns your core. Probably, this is the character of a real poet and the great ideal of a true poet.
Just sing a sad song,
Sigh sighs sickly steppe.
A skull of my dead grandfather,
A group of children kick the ball.
This is how the song "My grandfather's head" starts. As soon as you read it, the roof starts to shake. The mountains and the steppes are darkened, the river is overflowing, the ball is rolling with the ball, and you are waiting for your fate in the heart of the steppe. "I am withered, I am on the verge of extinction. I don't know why, he thought he was the head of Makhambet". The head of the hero, who was kicked, robbed and eventually died at the hands of his relatives, is being kicked at the feet of his descendants now, who fought for their future. The poet can't afford it himself. He whistles and cries ... Finally, another scourge came and hit the headstone and let it go. "My grandfather's skull was in disarray, it has been scattered all over the place," says the poet. "I have been collecting the red blood of my hands and the skull of my grandfather for weeks." The poem sounds provoking and weighs heavily on the mind. As if waiting for the precious candle of eternal longing and hope, the vengeful poet is like a beacon of the fate of the troubled country and the heritage of the nation, like a pedestal of a dependent soul who cannot land in a nest.
Everyone comes to a magical world like poetry in a different way. In any case, only talented people with a clear vision, a mature outlook on life and a lot of creative energy can leave their mark in this world. He can look at the real world through his nature. Kuanysh Ilyasuly is the poet of the Kazakh group of young poets in China, who has a unique voice in the poem, inspires with nostalgia and writes like a black dung left by his ancestors. From the lines of his childhood poems, the reader immediately knew that he was a poet. Later, various literary publications have shown that he was successful in dealing with complex topics.
We would like to review the poems of the poet, published in the press, that skillfully combine a national identity and delicate lyricism in the works, in which the genre features of the lyrical poem are becoming more and more obvious, and in short the aesthetic power of beautiful music and the poet's artistic ideals.
What does it mean for my mother?
The sail is the heart of the earth.
A green juniper stretches out his hand,
I come after a green life.
This is how he feels in the poem "Mother and Juniper". Long time ago, we used to show the Christmas tree as a symbol of the Kazakh image and an eternal ideal in the poem “Green Juniper” by Magaz Razdanuly. Kuanysh harmonizes the juniper with the lofty spirit of the mother in this work. The lyrical character of the poet and the image of "I" meet in a single stream of thought, giving an air of eternal life, a work full of life's aspirations. A noble image of the mother, a white love, takes on a special color in harmony with the nature of the evergreen green juniper. Undoubtedly, the following verses of the poet fully reflect this idea. "On the edge of a beautiful juniper tree, twenty-five is in a difficult situation. A green man is coming, the sun is near to him, the green world is swaying. " or “Kazakh juniper and garden steppe, a child grows up without river and mountains. Don't miss your mother as much as I do. These lines are the essence of the poem, an actual game, and a successful birth of the poem. The fate of the Kazakh juniper, that grew up in Almisak, on the banks of mountains and rivers, is a phenomenon in itself. Underlying this is the national identity. That is why, we call this work of the poet a world born of such a strong national consciousness. There is no greater tragedy for any nation than the loss of national roots. The poet expressed such thoughts through his carefree childhood, when he was a juniper tree with his mother. An idea of the work is very valuable. The test of the natural unity between man and nature, between mother and child, between man and the nation, the unborn child is at the root of the radical change in the consciousness of the mother. We can say that the poem is valuable for its readers with the potential of an aesthetic education and thought-provoking. We appreciate the talent of the poet, that is gifted as the pure nature of the mountains, and the smell of juniper is felt in every song of the poet. Joy is the sophistication of the pen, the predominance of epic power and the breadth of inspiration. As a result, he wrote many poems and ballads among young Kazakh poets in China. His poem "Ayni" about the famous kuyishi, orator, dancer Beisenbi has a special place. This poem is valuable because it conveys and renews a historical event in lyrical language. A poem is based on the love story of the historical figure Beisenbi, and the poet recreates the whole love story repeating a tragic destiny, the mourning life, the sad and mysterious feelings of our mother Aymi through his heart. "A beautiful lady looks at the tree and she falls in love with her soulmate. Instead of looking at the flowing water with resentment, the young man looks at the old man". Since the very beginning of the work, we know that he wants to tell a legendary love story. The beginning of the poem consists of only five couplets. No more words. Only the details of the core of the work, that led to the subsequent story, are touched upon. In general, this poem is valuable not because it is long and confusing, but because it uses words sparingly and conveys ideas concisely. Through this work, we can fully understand who a hostile character of the great kuyishi, what kind of wife a beautiful Aymi was, and what kind of soul she was. Thus, you can clearly see a great heart of the floor musician, his arrogant love and emotional outburst. "Aymi came knocking on the door at night. Burn the blood in a hurry, Aymi, who saw him next to him, is tall. " He describes the young widow's plight. Beautiful and pure in heart, Aymi pays more attention to the inner world than to the outer image of our mother. Using the phrase “A guard's bed with lashes”, the poet describes Aymi's perfection of purity and dedication to the Kazakh woman. When we talk about Aymi's feminine situation, we are reminiscing an image of Karakoz in M. Auezov’s story "Black Beauty". A grief of a woman who died prematurely should be considered as a successful part of the poem. Then, with the birth of the kyui "Kerbez sylkym", Beisenbi's dance will give an impression of a praisable song for beautiful Aymi. At the same time, the sorrows and longings of the steppe people are vividly reflected in the mastery of the poet, who guides the artists to the memory of their great love and noble feelings throughout the history. A plot of the poem, that is accompanied by a mysterious melody like a dombra body, that speaks like the melody of "Erke sylkym", deepens and leads to the release of kyui "Arman-ai", that echoes Beisenbi's love tragedy. In this case, the poet describes his mastery even in detail. The poet curses the evil intentions and mourns the death of Aymi, who died in results of an assassination attempt. In the last part, he sings the birth of the state of "Missing", which was like a mourning song of Beisenbi. In this section, that is considered to be the key point of the work, the poet is a little reluctant. However, in the last part, "Heart", the poet breathes a sigh of relief. "I have a brown dombra hanging on my chest. To the heights of my buried heart, Aymi is still alive.
The lyricism of the wise history, woven from the mood of Aymi and the great love of Beisenbi connects the legacy of the ancestors with the succession of generations. In this way, the cobweb of the art, that is inherited from the ancestor, will be connected and the pattern will be defined as well. If we say that the main artistic feature of the young Chinese Kazakh poets, that gives the smell of juniper, wormwood and the national color, is a clear proof of this in the work of Kuanysh Ilyasuly.
Kuanysh Daleyuly is one of the poets who sings in the midst of the creative work of young Kazakh poets in China on the path of growth, maturity and development. As the poet Zhumeken sang, "Every word has its essence", Kuanysh's poetry also reveals many secrets and reveals the openness of the mind. This means that Kuanysh's poetry is not a dark, unsystematic pile of words, but a pure word that boils like a stone spring. A poet who consciously committed himself to this difficult path, a poet who combined words and thoughts with high aesthetic taste and created the best poems that show the power of the Kazakh word. "My eyes were filled with questions; I was feeling at the beginning of edge ... I stood in silence. A rotten grain is a withered stalk, my heart is shaking with the wind. ... I am wheat, wheat is a farmer, from the same core ... My land is the homeland; I can't get rid of it. A grain grower is wheat, great friendship, this friendship is the universe that no one can find it. In this poem "Dikhan's monologue", the poet was able to combine the dry steppe, the blue sky, the hard-working, hopeful and the sweetest life against him, also the hustle and bustle of the real world perfectly. One of the strongest and most noble songs of the poet is "The wolf is a mother's ballad", that inspires your soul and leads your imagination to the abyss. This is a masterpiece that shakes the minds of the descendants of the blue Turks, who ate a wolf with a mythical background. It is a song of character, that strives for an artistic originality and beautiful painting. In general, if you look at the poetry of Kuanysh, it seems that more attention is paid to the negative side than the sun of life, and to the shadows. Even you can find out more in the laboratory of the poet, which is full of joyful lyrics, sorrow and sadness, and thick lines of poetry.
A dark light is running ... running,
Hope flies from the moon.
... inevitably given to excess,
and buried in freedom.
It is the destiny of the one who looks in the corner,
Ending with an unknown death.
A scientist Zhanat Askerbekkyzy: "In lyrical poetry, the truth is not told, not explained, everything is revealed and felt." The poet's poem "Old Palace" is a true manifestation of this scientific vision. I would say that this is another poem of joy, this poem clearly reflects the civil voice of the poet, born from the tip of a pen, longing for a suffocated, free sky, and a thoughtful song written in a symbolic way. An old palace is outdated, the memorized slogans and fame are like a typical image of the old society, the old Chinese system, full of lies. The poet tries to leave "Me" in that stone cage and fly away. He longs for the same steppe, heavenly life. In the poems "Slaves", that are predominant in the poems of Kuanysh, the same form of thought is brought to you. In general, the most characteristic feature of the group of Chinese poets, who were born in their homeland and felt the political turmoil of a foreign country, are the songs that are born from the national spirit, longing for the homeland. Instead of writing about the light emotions, poets often write about the difficult fate of the country.
The ancient Turkic masterpieces, Tonykok, Bilge Kagan, Kultegin, inspired by the songs of the narrators, visited the pinnacle of art, its color has not faded over the centuries, and the voice of epic poetry has not diminished too. Rather, it seems like to have helped us to regain our eagle-like spirit, that had shaken a rebellious society and lost its pedestal. Among the poets who mascoted the songs of those narrators "Whiskers pierce the sky and speak", we would name the fiery poems of Ularbek Daleyuly Baytaylak. His poems delight the reader with their wonderful combination of ancient steppe songs and delicate lyricism. Let's read the poet's poem, called "Sadness".
The pass was also decided to pass,
It was a gust of wind.
I had so many joys and many sorrows.
Have you brought the greet of late spring?
Have you seen the desert of my soul in the sand like a bird?
I have a heartache that can't be cured for a century,
Understand my sorrow like a Prince.
My sister stayed in the summer, crying and crying,
The sister became more and more depressed.
It was a prey for bare bushes, that ended up in the plains.
The leaves on the cliffs were scattered and turned into black manure.
The head of Altai is white,
Does Akseleu have a head?
Does a lost sister still love us?..
In this way, a song, that will make your bones tingle, is sung with one breath and one impulse. A repetitive rhetorical question in the poem itself increases an inner power of the poem, gives additional power to the thought, reveals the dreams and aspirations in the background (context), the essence of the great life and destiny. There is not only anger and sighing, but also a thousand-year-old bitter cry. There is a heavy poison like lead, that cannot miss its homeland, that has been trampled underfoot forever, and that cannot call its blood “Brother”, and has become an alien generation. It is a reflection of love of our ancestor Kaztugan, who said goodbye to Edil and said, "Good luck to you." It causes a severe pain in the abdomen and makes the heart ache. A great essence of the poet Ularbek Daleyuly`s work nourishes this spirit, the highest point of consciousness, the world of warm, passionate love, that heals the human soul, and creates a "New man" out of it. This kind of poems are abundant in his poetry. In one of the traveling poems, such as "Letter", "Kultegin's last word", "Song of the Blue Turk's march", it looks bright, embossed, and looks like a stone stamp of an ancient sculptor. It is clear that the poet Ularbek will still delight all the lovers of poetry with this powerful flood, given by God.
Of course, it is known that we do not meet the most talented, mysterious, beautiful, lively and colorful words of the most talented poet. The above-mentioned poems of the above-mentioned poets are just a part of the poet's successful life, which has the character of an angel, shines the light of faith and leaves a pearl of familiar words. In this sense, poets are constantly in search and growth. People are constantly innovating, looking for a place and constantly learning about the new world. Another poet of this spirit is Tolegen Mellat. Here is an excerpt from his poem "Barkolim". “I will turn your name to your majesty, your sorrow like the black sky, turning to the gratifying place, and flee to my grave. My backbone Barkolim! No matter what happens to you, Kandykoz is the pressure of the eyebrows. I entrust you to God, the orphan of Turan." Poetry is not something that can be explained, nor it is a mysterious phenomenon that is not understood. He needs an inner strength and a delicate taste of the soul. The poet's "Me" is not by himself, but "My" grief is the cry of the whole nation. The tears of one nation. Mourning the homeland, the poet seeks a white nostalgia of humanity. He mourns the memorized place of Alash. He longs for a whole country. He asked. It hurts. Only the beggar is given to God. The poem is not about disappointment, but about the self-reflection, struggle with the throne, and the Holy Spirit does not rest on the ground, but goes against the tide and screams like a thief. The poem is written with the most nourishing beauty of the soul. An artistic color is unique. The long sleeve represents a wide breath of a horse. It is a fragrant song, like a longing horse.
A well-known Kazakh jeweler, writer Kalikhan Yskak, burst into tears when he first heard the voices of young Kazakh poets in China. "A slow rhythm, a beautiful rhythm like a road, a non-violent sleep flowing freely like a gushing spring, then a picture, a pure feeling of nostalgia, mood, and then a brown voice! ... A brown voice from all over Altai. I'm not mistaken in saying that it is a continuation of the Kazakh poem that Nesipbek started again. Of course, behind him is Mukagali: our plains, mountains, in short, our picture is like the Kazakh's own jacket ... not to mention the poetic value, nostalgia for the homeland. We missed the Kazakh song, and it seemed to be a consolation for that nostalgia. " It seems to me that Kalikhan Isaac is singing the roots of his brother's songs, which landed far from his homeland.
The artistic features of the work of young Kazakh poets in China have their own peculiarities. If we take into account that literature is influenced by the environment in which we grew up, the relations of peoples, the political system, language differences, different literary environments and literary connections, the scientific nature of this word would be so obvious. Especially if we take into account the fact that Kazakhstan and China have lost touch with each other for almost half a century. These political deviations cannot but affect every writer of every epoch on their own level. If you add to it the influence of original Chinese literature, pure Chinese culture, we can see the horizons of today's world of young poets. We often see this pasture in the group of talented poets, who skillfully combine traditional Kazakh poetry and new literary trends, and who are able to master the song like six ribbons. We have given more or less examples above. These young poets are still maturing. However, there were poets who could make a significant contribution to the Kazakh poetry in the previous generation.
As mentioned above, the main feature of the work of Kazakh poets in China is the richness of the national color, the richness of the language. An ability to describe the sacred black verse, which has been going on for centuries, in a formal way, with a unique tone. This is another precious channel in our literature. There is a lot of treasure to give tomorrow. A promising doctrine. This article is the first drop of the world, the first melody. The beginning of our thoughts. We only talked about the writers we have, who are in the forefront of the country, who have already published several collections of poems.