It is known that a well-known translator, literary scholar Azimkhan Tishanuly did a lot of work on the issue of Kazakh poetry. His series of articles on Kazakh classical black poetry, written at the end of the last century, did not leave the literary environment of the time indifferent, but opened the way to a new direction in the science of Kazakh poetry. We believe that research articles such as “The Black House of Kazakh Poetry”, “The Nature of Black Poetry”, “The Poem of Black Poetry” are still relevant and valuable. In this article, we would like to present the ideas of the scientist, that reveal the conflict and continuity between modern Western and European poetry and Kazakh classical black poetry, the differences, an aesthetic cognition of thinking of the two people. This topic is still one of the most pressing issues in today's Kazakh society, and literary criticism. At any age, time and space, traditions and customs have been arguing, competing, rejecting each other, pushing each other forward and developing in a contradictory manner. In this work, a scientist compares an aesthetic knowledge of Abai and Pushkin's poems, an epic “Iliad” and the poem “Kyzzhibek” and expresses vital ideas.
A theoretical gap between the aesthetics of Western aesthetics and classical black poetry is clear. The theoretical discovery of the gap is not a reflection of the inner nature of how it is formed in practice. In order to demonstrate, you need to have a clear example and characteristics that will convince and attract the attention. So, this is a very important issue - let's look at specific examples.
“A shadow lengthens the head and hides it from eyes. Time will shorten the day and raise it above the horizon”. This is another poem translated by Abai from Lermontov. An original verse of the poem as follows: “When the red evening sun crosses from the west and sets in the blue sky, a thin mist rises and the curtain of night covers all that is in front of the eyes”. You see, an objective image of the evening world here is also repeated in its original form, the sun is setting and the night is getting darker. In Abai, a giant shadow lengthens the head, and a document called time shortens the day. Lermontov mentions an inanimate nature with his mind's eye, and Abai, who adheres to the rhyme of black poetry, is one with the living nature, as if with his friends. Nature is itself, nature is nature.
The same is true of the “Letter from Onegin and Tatiana”, that is said to have been translated from Pushkin. Pushkin's “Eugene Onegin” is a lyrical novel. It is a 14-line version of a sonnet, following in the footsteps of Greek historical epics and Western traditions that have been popular with jewelers such as Byron for a long time. In other words, the Western aesthetics is a Russian example of the tradition of imitation. Written in the narrative style of the novel from the beginning to the end, it is said that Tatiana fell in love with Onegin. Abai, who saw an ambiguity in the narration of the tradition of objective imitation of love, compares art with Pushkin about this love. Convinced of the dominance of his art, Abai turns the objective imitation of the original into the mystery of black poetry, creating a whole new love for Tatiana and Onegin. These individuals, such as:
“He didn't know the color of his age,
If it tastes good, it doesn`t mean bad” says Onegin's character:
Tatyana's love affair, that says: “A young heart is open, a finger is far from the moon”:
“You are the most wounded tiger,
I am a deer calf.
I can hardly say I'm dead,
Your nails are very bad”.
“I would like sour cream,
Tatyana's dream of returning to the mountains: “I know you don't like it, it's an old wound. What kind of time is it that you don't like your heart anymore?” “I'm in love, no doubt, for the sake of sorrow”, said Onegin. “We can't wait to see each other, that's why we lost”, said Tatiana's last cousin. “She came dressed in a good dress and warmly touched her soul. Duane's heart was pounding”, Onegin's dying words were uttered by a group of people who could not find the original images of the same kind in the original. - Don't panic! – We tell them that these eternal images are Abai's own, that is, a masterpiece of art, that he creates “What love is”. What can we say but that Abai, who knows Pushkin's weaknesses like the back of his hand and brings the aesthetics of love of classical black poetry out of the race, does not say that he was born of his people, Ulzhan, black poetry, but laughs at those who are born of Pushkin in Russian literature? Yes, let's continue to have fun with such people. Thus, it seems that we have more or less harmonized the two figures of aesthetics, and now we should pay some attention to the nature of black poetry.
I'm always riding, but
The double ring in your hand is a screw.
When I moved to the outskirts of the village,
It's a place where you can see the burns.
This is an ordinary black poem. This is how the first two verses of black verses are often formed. These are the first two verses, although those who are disgusted by the black verse are skeptical and hopeful. It turns out that the nature of black poetry has a lot to do with these first two points. It has been stated above that the Western aesthetics imitates an objective world with the eyes of the mind, while the aesthetics of the Eastern black classical poetry captures the objective world with the eyes of the mind. This would be very annoying if this black verse reached the Western community in this way. Because, in accordance with their traditions, when they sing this song, they first objectively find the image of a “Playing place” in a corner of space, and then re-create the landscape of the place, depicting a young man on a horse or a girl wearing a ring. It would have described the meeting. And for a black poem, it is not necessary to mention such a fatwa, a point of space, because it is considered as a space. He can copy the whole space with him and seduce any level of mental space to his liking at any time. For example, “I have always ridden dark bay” in this gleaming mental space, “Dark bay” and “Double Ring” capture the funniest moments of a guy and a girl, that are burning now. It is a hot and interesting time, and not only for a moment, but also for the whole congregation, that is listening to the song and experiencing this feeling, and it touches the whole body. In his imagination, everyone imagines his own dark bay, his own double ring, his own fun and burn. Mercy moves, but does not bleed, enjoys, but cannot express the meaning in words. This is not the only place, not only in one place, but in any place, in any situation, no matter how many times you hear it, it gives the listener that special feeling. Those images will not become obsolete no matter how many years and times they are told. Every time it is said, it is renewed and the mood shines in the sky forever. Aesthetically, the world that captivates the soul is eternal. Therefore, it is impossible that this image will not shine forever. It's not just this “I'm always riding and I'm a thief” – the classic black poem has a number of immortal images like this that have survived forever. In other words, it is no exaggeration to say that everything that happens in space is found in black poetry, where emotions are combined as well. In the words of the black verse:
Mountain and song, stone and song, tree and song,
Conflict is a song, mind is a song, strange is a song.
The earth is a song, the animals are the song, the soul is a song,
A friend is a song, a relative is a song, a friend is a song.
There is a big secret in this. This secret lies in the peculiarity of classical black poetry in the transformation of mental space into an art form. In our first article on the black poetry, we imagined an ugliness of black poetry, that could fit all the art – lyric, epic and drama. An essence of this awkwardness can be seen in the fact that the black poetry transforms this mental space into a way of art. In particular, this feature is a spatial installation. Editing is the main way of contemporary cinematography, where you can create, connect, combine parts and create a second impression. An emergence of this approach is typical for the modern era of cinema. But, strangely enough, this approach, that is, the release of this free classic black poem into the ring of art, has been instilled in it since an immemorial time. We call this approach the peculiarity of black poetry in the transformation of mental space into an art form. For example:
“I fell from the top of the Black Mountain,
It is difficult to connect the two points logically: “I stroked the forehead of the deaf”. You can also do this:
When you remember the cross-section,
It is difficult to connect the last two verses with the meaning: However, the listeners of this song were in a state of mental turmoil, when they saw a young man running to the top of a black mountain, trying to fall down, stroking the back of his head, trying to find a way to get on along with their walls bend. Logic and meaning do not touch their walls. How is this? Wasn't that one of the gossips that followed the black verse? In some respects, Platon, who lived two thousand years ago, is far wiser than we are. He said: “You can see the real thing, you can't think. You can think, you can't see”. The truth is that “Falling from the head of Karatau”, “Stroking the head of a deer” are real things that you see, you do not think about, you just feel. A name of the image is made up of such real things that it can convey things that it cannot imagine. If a black poetry was not an image, but a world of abstract concepts, then, of course, it would have to be built on logic and meaning. Realizing this, Platon deliberately opens the world of feelings and understanding. Realizing this, the black poem transforms the mental space, combined with emotion, into an art form, and when necessary, copies it with the real world. There are many ways to create a video with such a mental montage. For example, if the above “Brown bay” and “Double ring” are created by combining the heads of two identical images, the “Head of the black mountain” and “The deer of the five” form the two distant heads.
“An eagle flies around the field,
When he sees it coming down, the fox turns into a lion”: “The owl summarizes at the beginning of the cliff, there is a day when there is nothing. God forbid that a friend should be hostile to a friend, and a wolf should not be hostile to his companion”. “The world is twisted in a crooked way” is also about the image of the Koran, and the whole world rises to the sky of mental space. There are no restrictions. The Western aesthetics is not like that. Because her nature is imitative, her nipples are created to achieve the reality of what she imitates, in order to stand and walk where the time and space stand. For example, Pushkin wanted to show the clarity and reality of the appearance of the same cloud: “The cloud that was chased by the storm, you are the only one moving in the open sky” and the confusion between truth and falsehood. It doesn't open, it doesn't speak and end. Feeling we have “Run out of gas” emotionally. Every imagination of the hearer picks up this blur and fills the rest with the blue body of each mood.
Where there is a video, there is beauty. If we say that the aesthetic dreams of mankind for a beautiful life, a slender person are realized through the real, perfect images, then the poetry creates these images as epics. It is necessary to consider the creation of these images in order to delve deeper into the nature, artistic laws and aesthetic complexity of the two aesthetics in question. However, it is very difficult to fit such a topical world of a book into a small article. However, if we combine the best traditions, such as the “Iliad” of Western aesthetics and the song “Kyz Zhibek” of classical black poetry, we can see some aspects of this topical world. The “Iliad” is a great work that sets an example for the West and creates an aesthetic tradition. At the heart of the story of such a great work is the beautiful Elena. The controversy led to the Trojan War, that lasted for the decades and ravaged all of Greece. How is the epic image of Elena, who once shook the Greek world and has since become a beauty pageant in Western aesthetics? It is said that Greek artists of that time collected all the beauties of Greece to create a beautiful figure of Elena. She still could not make out her beautiful figure. When the war ended and the victor brought Elena into the crowd, the people looked at each other and said, “It's as if a country was not created for nothing”. This is the end of the image of a beautiful spirit, that has been in the Western aesthetics for almost three thousand years. This is not a negative cognition for the Western aesthetics, whose nature is based on imitation, clarity and truth. After all, it is “True” that Elena's beauty could not be drawn by the artist, and the fact that the square group admired her as “Beautiful” is “True”, so it is “True” that Elena is the most beautiful. And Kyzzhibek's beauty is different. She is not a beauty of intelligence and understanding, but the beauty that sees and feels. An artist is not looking for the aesthetics of classic black poetry for its beauty. Nor does the horizontal eye judge look. Silk is looking for the beauty, only its appearance. Of course, this is not an objective image of the West that corresponds to the “Reality”, but an image of an aesthetic dream. As it was mentioned above, a classic black poem creates such image through its own unique way, that is, the ability to turn the mental space into an art form. In particular, the space is rotated seven times to reveal the image of Kyzzhibek's beauty. In the seven-fold spatial montage, seven beauties (one of Zhibek's mother) are visible, and the forty beauties show off all their beauty, and Zhibek's even more beautiful beauty spoils the desire of the soul. Then: “As if cooked from the edge of light, as if the milk fell to the ground” a bright face of Zhibek is fully revealed, and Zhibek, who is ingenious, eloquent, intelligent, and has a strong moral conscience, shines before our eyes. A song takes you from the real world to the aesthetic world. From an aesthetic point of view, everything here is hot for you. And by the nature of Western aesthetics, that adheres to the imitation, the “Iliad” mentally pursues the reality of the real world, there is an intermediate link between the objective world. For example, the beauty of Elena is achieved through this link – the artist, the group – so such a world is cold for us. The aesthetics of classical black poetry does not need such a link, where the real image shines and pinches the feeling itself. Just as the feeling of sweetness is vomited, so the image of silk is vomited too. That's why everything here is hot. Of course, both Western aesthetics and the aesthetics of classical black poetry are the traditions that represent an advanced model of human aesthetic consciousness. However, when it comes to the aesthetics, it is easy to see that the song “Kyzzhibek” from the “Iliad” is somewhere in the collection, and it touches the soul somewhere.
This means that the two traditions have been going on for thousands of years. Just as the Western aesthetics is a tradition of modern Western literature, so is the aesthetics of classical black poetry a tradition of modern Kazakh literature. Of course, aesthetics as a form of human consciousness, like humanity itself, is constantly evolving. Such maturity is not due to the obsolescence of the old, the emergence of new ones, but to the continuity of human traditions, such as heredity. For example, almost three thousand years before the Iliad was published, there are still some epics in Western literature, and today's reader still enjoys it. The song "Kyzzhibek" is the same. Although many epics were written after that, the song is still fresh and perfect. In this way, the continuity, historicality and internal connection of the aesthetic tradition is broken, and the old one is worn out. An idea that something new happens by chance or can be copied from another place, in other words, is completely contrary to the dialectic of development. Therefore, those who did not want to be confined to the house of oral literature under different names and did not want to go to today's literature, said to those who were “On their own”: We would like to announce once and finish our article. After all, our article began with the need to recognize this Turkic – the nature of black poetry. At this point, we believe that the aesthetics of classical black poetry, that is, the blackness of the Kazakh literature, was seen from the bottom. God willing, now any of us can proudly say that today's level of Kazakh literature is on a par with the world – due to the aesthetics of classical black poetry!