One of the reasons people in a vicious addiction - idleness. When he had tilled the land, engaged in trade, how could he lead an idle life?
Abay Kunanbayev

Literary process
Artistic features of K.Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration”

27.05.2022 223

Artistic features of K.Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration”

Part 1

The full annexation of Kazakhstan into the Russian Empire in 1731-1868, the difficult lives of the expelled Kazakhs, the common historical situation, the political campaigns in the People's Republic of China and the tragedy of the East Turkestan people were completed in this novel. A brief life in the village of Kanagat in the novel is clearly described in K. Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration”. In particular, the great migration of two hundred thousand people in 20 days is masterfully depicted in 1962. For example.

In the middle of the procession, a bull with a black pavilion passed by an open square where he had gathered up the fence.

— Well, that's the light and the border!

He looked around.

— There is a gap between the two villages. Why haven't we been together for a long time? Until this day, you have no dreams, son of Koishibay...

— “Let's see what happens in this world!”, he said, pulling the bull's udder and crawling on the slopes of the Mount Bakhty.

The writer has expressed the character's regret, depicting the mood of Uzak when he crossed the border. The writer used dialogues to portray the characters who were once born and raised.

Yestay, who was running to greet his brothers, suddenly heard a voice and said.

— “Oh, mullah”.

He glanced at Zhupar, who was carrying one of his children behind him. The sparrow is not visible. The smiling bride pulled her horse's head as her smiling face leaned against it. There are a lot of episodic characters in this novel. The writer described the characteristics of the episodic characters in his own words and created a dialogue with other characters to prove it. In the field of art, the character, system of thinking, and the inner world are reflected in their style of speech. There is an element of sharp drama in the language of the protagonist. It is in harmony with the character's rich national vocabulary, social status, character, and breath of life. For example, it is clear from the dialogues that not all Kazakhs have moved and relocated:

—Yes, are you safe? Where is Shuken?

— It's all right... It's all over. He says he will be the leader of that country.

— Well, are you serious?

— Well, it's not true...

— “If I leave, there will be no shopkeepers in this country”, - Zhukar said. But he does not seem to care. He looked at Yestay and joked.

— “Find me a good guy, mullah”. It is said that the men here are well-educated and mature. “Will they turn a blind eye to us?”

— “Someone will be found in the country... You won't be noticed by guys either!”, Yestay just laughed.

The crowds of people are constantly flowing along the border. Yestay was astonished to see another familiar image shining through the crowd. Nugyman's son Salim and his wife Sakypzhamal were riding in the cart. Salim was a giant at that time. As he approached the crossing, he jumped out of the cart, drove his horse, and passed by. When he saw Estay, he and his mother greeted him warmly and asked him where the country from Sibeti had stopped immediately.

— “Did you come at all? Where are the others?”, - Yestay said that not taking his eyes off Salim's face, which is very similar to the deceased Duriya.

— “No, only my aunt and I are coming”, - Salim said this wiping his sweaty forehead with a towel.

— “Dad was left... No matter how much I campaigned, he didn't follow. Well, we just said goodbye” — he pointed this to the other side of the border.

Then Yestay asked,

— “Why did that happen?” — he asked. He looked in the direction indicated by Salim and saw Nugyman standing alone on one side. He folded his whip in two and placed it horizontally next to the man, leaning on it like a stone statue. It was clear that he had come to the doorstep, that he had closed so hard, but he could not cross it again. Yesterday, the Tigers sang about how they had abandoned him on the Barlyk mountain. Apparently, he came up with a solution.

Kabdesh Zhumadilov's equations are not just simple equations, but they are very accurate, and have clear alternatives and imaginative paintings. An author always targets elegance and precision when describing natural phenomena, the complexities of human thought, or the scenes of war against the enemy.

The word is renewed with the beauty of the character and the strength of the meaning of the word. The art of speech is due to the beauty of the melody and the harmony of the schedule. The beauty of melody is that it lists words in sound order. Its strength is emphasized in the use of methods that add strength to the normal meaning of the word. The writer used the expression of the national language appropriately when describing the seasons, nature, war scenes, lyrical digressions, and speaking on his own behalf. The artistic devices such as metaphors, epithets, metaphors, metonymy, etc., that are found in the sentences are carefully selected here. It prevents confusing or, conversely, shortening the sentences.

The masterful description of the picturesque nature of the Darkhan steppe, the customs of the people, the peculiarities of speech, and the national character is considered a sign that the work of Kabdesh Zhumadilov is imbued with the national spirit. Whatever the author's work, the plot is interesting, the idea is clear, the language is simple. It accurately depicts the internal evolution of nature and creates a symbolic image of mountains and steppes.

After misleading his relatives, Zhagypar and Nurbek were escorted to the top of the Bakhty mountain. In the meantime, it seems that the whole Kulustay is in the palm of his hand. In the far east, the Orkashar peaks give way. It describes the collapse of the Tarbagatay massif as a sunken pomegranate in the Negev, the towering of the Mayly-Zhair ridges in the south, and the great tumult of the potholes in the middle of at least one hundred and fifty-two hundred kilometers. The caravan routes that crossed the steppe were covered with dust. The writer skillfully depicts the dust of a dusty horse and a dirty road. In describing the story, the writer does not distort or try to change the historical truth. The place, time, object, and subject of the event are accurately described there. The artist complements the past events with his imagination. Thus, the author brings to life the invisible realities of life.

The back of the Great Migration has not straightened out yet.

— “Christ has escaped from the plague”, he said.

Many writers, critics, and scientists have expressed heartfelt condolences on the death of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's work. writer Akim Tarazi has proved the following things about Kabdesh Zhumadilov: Having been born and raised in one country, it is not easy to come to another country and write a work of art about that country. However, T. Sydykov said that Kabdesh did not stumble.

All three stood at the top of the ridge, staring at the dust of the country they had moved to. Along with the joy of being liberated, there was a deep sadness in their hearts. Is it easy for a person to leave the country where they were born and grew up? Even though he is a giant, does not cut the foothills of Orkashar, where his umbilical cord blood drips, and stares at it until the light of his eyes shines... And before Yestay's eyes, the green pastures of Tarbagatay and the dark winter of his father near Maldybay spring did not go unnoticed. The writer depicted a nomadic lifestyle. We perceive it with deep feeling through the figurative influence of the triumph of the Kazakh worldview, which gives us a clear picture.

He conveyed his dreams and tastes to the world by comparing them with well-known and familiar things. K. Zhumadilov masterfully conveyed the well-known procession, the inventory of the villages, the stocking of cattle and camels, the preparation of horses, and the moment of their solemn relocation to their destination. We clearly see the picture of a country that has moved inseparably.

When the author first introduces the character, he tries to give more information about him. He often uses the methods of monologue and dialogue. That means, dialogue and monologue are the most effective methods used by the writer to reveal the characters' personalities.

— “Leave us alone; it's as if we escaped from another tragedy. Most of all, I can't keep up with this cat. Let's talk about a distant country”, — he sighed.

Kazakhs lived in twenty-eight districts of East Turkestan. What we see is the migration of only three districts... And where will the rest of the country move? Where should we go to save our lives?

— “The Altai and Kulja regions are also along the border. Probably, this leader also included them”, — Nurbek said this consolingly.

Even if they can't move, let's not despair of the future, Jake. Life does not perish on this page. China is also a great nation. They will explain it to you.

At this point, the tiger had joined them. This morning he went to the hospital to check on his brother. The attention of the people on the top of the hill turned to Shashtygali's condition.

— “She is in good condition. The heat has returned and he is up today. He greeted you three times”, — said the Tiger.

Shaken had a request. I am just fulfilling it, and starting from today, my brothers and I gave up names like “Shashtygali” and “Tiger” that we found on the road. Our names were included in the list to return to our homeland under our own names, which our parents called the "call to prayer." Then we ask you to call us by that name. This country needed a surname. Our surname was Zhankobekov...

— Well, that's right.

— Congratulations! The older brothers take the tiger's hand and congratulate him.

— “Really, it was interesting!” Nurbek said, as if he had found a new field in his mind.

Well, those who once lost their name are finding their name again... And what about those who lost their belongings for free? Of course, they also have their roots. Isn't this another significance of this migration? This time, people will be freed not only from hunger but also from spiritual oppression, ignorance, and helplessness.

— “Everyone who traveled here for only fifty kilometers and crossed the border, of course, left behind fifty years in terms of the historical development of society." As a result, it is not a mistake for each of us to add fifty years to our natural age”, — he explained.

— “It's true”. I wonder if we made the real “Big jump” that the Chinese people say” — Zhagypar said.

The problem is that these two lives can be connected without interruption... You just talked about two stages of development and cultivation. It will not be easy for us to cross those two distances. Not all trees that have been uprooted and planted elsewhere will sprout. A new environment, the new pace, which young people are not accustomed to, will be difficult for the elderly like us.

— “It doesn't matter”. “We will lift another weight for the people” — Nurbek said.

However, we are not coming empty-handed. Although we are slow and alert. We are the only children of nature preserved in good condition. Our souls are whiter than milk and purer than water. We are easily infected by art and morals.

As Abai said, “If a thirsty person finds water, he will not give up”. It turns out that we are still joining the ranks, without helping anyone.

— “Someone else will be replaced, but what will you replace the place of birth?” Zhagypar said again.

It's like a dream in the background, and a whole life left. You may feel as if you have been buried in a distant land, and you may miss the ring of your life.

— “Yes, it is true that there is a whole life and a great history left behind”, — said Nurbek, looking at the thick hair of Shaueshek.

— “Sometimes, when you think about it, it seems that you have been doing this for a long time. Of course, each of us will not forget the history we have experienced; we will always think about it and take it with us... But how do you explain it to other blind people, to the next generation? I have an idea”, — he said, leaning on Yestay's shoulder, who was standing next to his right hand.

Yestay, you are a poet and a brother. You are a person who has a special gift from nature. Take another look at that one-lane road. Isn't that amazing? In the end, do not forget that the history of this great migration should be written down. Both your ancestors and your father, Kanagat, were people who fulfilled their historical mission with dignity. Maybe destiny assigned you such a difficult task?! You have to carry out this task without hesitation, saying that “There will be no load on the road to Nar”.

Nurbek's words were supported by others as well. They sang at the top of the hill, stood for a while longer, and then headed for the thick country below. On the same day, hundreds of trucks arrived from inside and began to transport refugees along the Ayagoz-Bakhty avenue...

It looks like the road has been repaired and fixed. The crowds, oxen, and pedestrians rushed to the border, and they roamed the Kazakh steppes by car, train, and plain. This is the first time that most of the affected countries have driven a motor vehicle. They were just beginning to realize that they had come to a different life and a completely different state. The dimensions of time, space, and speed seem to have changed.

Therefore, the last migration of the Kazakhs, moving towards freedom and a bright future, joined the era of great progress from one side.

The main feature of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's work is that all the works of the writer are based on real data. With this feature, the artwork is real and attractive. Because, like some writers, he does not know the meaning of flattery and constantly promotes the bitter realities of society. Given that any writer comes to the field of literature with his own novel, all the artistic images created by the writer are realistic. A person who reads a writer's work reads it without giving up. What can be connected with this? There is no doubt that this is due to the fact that the writer writes only the truth. The noble qualities such as simplicity and justice inevitably attract the reader.

Not every writer can write a work of art about the history of a particular people. It takes years of research and hard work to write a historical novel. Only then can you look at the country's past, predict the future and write a work of art. The novel-dilogy “The Last Migration” is also the result of many years of searching by the writer Kabdesh Zhumadilov.

Exploring history, digging deeper, and writing about historical figures is like digging a well with a needle. In particular, the life of one person may not be enough to fully understand the lives of the Kazakh khans and commanders, who were previously motionless like gold.

Before writing the novel, Kabdesh Zhumadilov looked at many works, historical works, and archival materials and acknowledged them.

In the process of comparing historical facts and works, we noticed that the historical facts are artistically described in the novel, preserving the historical basis. People's actions have become a figurative image. If we read the archives or historical works in real life, the writer deeply reveals the worldview, views, and lives of the people and raises them to an artistic level in the literary work.

He concentrated on the peculiarities of literature depicting real historical people and historical events, claiming that the historical problem reflected in the literature shows the spiritual development of the particular people, whereas historical figures in the literature allow us to consider that people's civil history. At the same time, in order to achieve an artistic truth for a writer, first of all, it is a creative ideal for him to get acquainted with the historical events and significant social phenomena of the period he is portraying and come to a serious conclusion.

Only a real talent can build a road from scratch. Kabdesh Zhumadilov used different methods and techniques to convey the reality of life in an artistic way.

K. Zhumadilov’s mastery is determined by the appropriate use of the Kazakh people's words, proverbs, oratory, the dramatic accuracy of dialogues, monologues, and sentences. In historical works, the writers aimed to reveal the spirit of the times, to visualize and reveal the "soul of history", not only to add meaning to words and thoughts. The proverbs in the novel can be considered new achievements of the writer in this field. Most of them are taken from the lives of the Kazakh people. Therefore, it is clear to the Kazakh people.

“He cures thousands of diseases”, “He comes wearing a butterfly”, “If you graze cattle, choose a field, if you graze a country”, “Where there are no good intentions”, “Where there is a sword, there is silver”, “When the power comes through the door, justice comes out of the night”, “If you talk, your brother will be abused”, “The head of the argument is a knife, the legs are a hug”, “There is no rest in the dance”. The beauty of the word table, the fluency of the language, the imagery of the sentences, emphasizes the writer in another way. This is the scoundrel who hit your country without seeing your lips! The crown has no traces left, and it is worn out in July! “If it is true that you are a country, let's think before you put your feet on a snake and a cat”. “Selebe doesn't come, it shakes. If something bad happens, it comes with its mother”. “You are in the mouth of a dragon, in the way of a lion!” If you lie down, it hurts. If you rush, it swallows you. On one hand, there is a squirrel with squinty eyes, a mustache, and a dirty mind! If you leave them alone, they will not leave the Koreans in the Horde, they will not leave the Koreans in the village, they will not leave the corpses in the graves, they will leave them in the steppe, and the dog will eat their father's intestines; “This is the only way to keep your eyes open and your blood flowing!” It's hard to master what is unbalanced. The disrespectful quarrels turn into syphilis. An unruly enemy will be crushed. “The bullet enters like a bullet and emerges as a tenge”, “Jaishylyk is full of gentlemen”. When there is no enemy, there are many heroes; when there is no conflict, there are many minds. “There is no speaker in the house”, “There is no hero in the house”, “There are a lot of beautiful guilds!” You have not been afraid of the faithful sergeant. But you have to think that they are not the ones in the great Oirat horde who kiss and fly away when you say “kiss!” The reader is not bored when reading the sentences. The artistic function of each word, phrase, and sentence is unique.

Any work by K. Zhumadilov will captivate and fascinate its readers. What is the secret to this? The secret is that the writer is able to describe the phenomena of life realistically, without any color. The weapon in the hands of the writer is the richness of language, artistic expression of sentences, and an infinite ability to think. In his novels, using a variety of artistic tools, he created canvases that touched the hearts of the readers. This is proof that he has mastered the language of the people.

The construction of the mosque and madrasah by Kuderi, the ancestor of the writer, the construction of the pond with the permission of the Chinese government to prevent the descendants of Ishmael from weaving, the construction of the houses for Balykbay Shal and Kamilzhan Uzbeks, and so on. The symbols of human morality were found everywhere. The world of educational nature increases the number of benefactors in the work by creating a positive mood in the reader. No one is forcing these compassionate people to do good things to ordinary people. These people in the country, regardless of the situation, always belong to the group that tends to take good actions for a good reason. Here the author gives the three different periods: the period of everyone's life, time (by recollection), the time during which he wrote the work, and the time when the reader acknowledged the work.

Basically, three subjects are considered in relation to each other in a work of art: the author-creator, the character, and the reader-recipient. Therefore, we must consider the time and the text in a work of art in the following unity: the time of the event, the actual time (epoch, memory of the day, the course of events), the fact that the word style as a material object, the real world), and the time of its reception by the reader (“The Time of the Story” by B.V. Tomashevskiy).

However, there is no common ground between the time of the work as a material thing and the time described in its content, because any text is a form of aesthetic perception.

Another feature of the novel “The Last Migration” is that the representatives of other nationalities are also able to raise topical issues along with the difficult destiny of the Kazakh people. In the history of the Uyghur people, who lived side by side with the Kazakhs in the Xinjiang region of China, the Uyghurs, who appeared in the struggle against the hardships of the empire, were among the most distinct people. In general, despite the fact that their destinies are common, the fact that the national characteristics of these people are reflected in the novel enhances a cognitive aspect of the novel. Despite the fact that the Turkic people have a common language and religion, it is clear what makes the Uyghurs different from the Kazakhs. The significant differences are also due to the fact that they are sedentary. Despite the advantages of this way of life, the writer does not forget that on such an important issue as the independence of the nation, the human psychology leads to shyness. It is easy to understand from the following fact in the novel: “If the Uyghurs in Kashgar had taken up arms and moved together on their knees, would the whole of Xinjiang have been liberated?”

To be continued…

Leave a comment: