One of the reasons people in a vicious addiction - idleness. When he had tilled the land, engaged in trade, how could he lead an idle life?
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Artistic features of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration”

29.05.2022 221

Artistic features of Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration”

(Part 2)

(continuance)

In particular, the writer's ultimate idea here is that it becomes clear about the sedentary nature of the people that leads to the tyranny of the liberation movement in these historical events and its consequences ultimately lead to selfishness. It is known that the Uyghur people, who could not move during the crisis times and did not pay attention to the necessity of strike iron in the heat of the day, were not able to gain independence from the empire and suffered a lot. In 1954, the place where the Uyghur`s people lived was renamed as the Uyghur Autonomous Region. The open-minded citizens of the nation were aware that such an administrative name is too restrictive, and they raise it as a big issue in the “Openness” to freedom.

Kabdesh Zhumadilov's novel “The Last Migration” is one of the most memorable novels with a clear national spirit. A history of the Tertuyl tribe and its various ancestors with dynasties is closely connected not only with the history of the same people but also with the history of the entire Kazakh community in China. When the writer tells the story of each individual from this ore, ancestors and the destiny of the various rebels between them, it is inevitably the same blood that grows outside of the great Kazakhstan.

If any of our writers, relying on the spirit of independence, wanted to write the memoir, no one could have stopped them. Therefore, it is the matter of course that the focus of the study will be on the best works of art. From this point of view, while preserving of artistic spirit, the creations and works of Zhumadilov, who is the winner of the State Prize of the Republic of Kazakhstan, can be considered to have revealed the face of our society, that was full of changes during the Soviet era and independence.

One of the common features of biographical works of art is the attitude of the people around the protagonist, the author of the work and a humane attitude as well. The fact that the Kazakh people are individuals who pay attention to interpersonal relations is especially evident in the memoirs of Kazakh writers. In the course of all this communication, the appropriate person will form a certain opinion in the mind of comfortable reader. This means that it is significant to take into account the author's views and opinions on the protagonist. If the author has a good relationship with the person in question or if the person has done the good deeds and advantages for himself, the author does not draw the attention to some of his shortcomings or apologize, and leaves a pleasant impression. On the contrary, it should be borne in mind that such a subjective view can lead a writer to write in a negative way if he sees some of the things that people do not like in his life.

Therefore, K. Zhumadilov's novel “Last Migration” is not the only answer to the question. First of all, this work is not limited to the biographical problems of one author, but it is impossible to tell the story of history in the middle of the empires. The author of the book, who was born in the region of the current Chinese state, later rode a horse and resettled to his historical homeland, where he became a citizen of Kazakhstan. Besides that, this country has closely connected its future with this land, along with hundreds of thousands people from other fateful Kazakhs.

While the events described in the first parts of the memoir were taking place in China, the development of the rest of the story lines was directly related to the address space of Kazakhstan. Moreover, these are the historical preconditions that allow us to reflect on some tragic periods in the history of the united people, that usually split in two as a result of the division of the Kazakh lands by the great powers. That means, what we see here is that the writer is able to completely establish his space, starting from the middle of the work, even if he is only temporarily in the process of changing his space at the beginning of the work.

Secondly, in addition to the author's own biography, the stories about the lives of his ancestors, as well as the genealogy of his ancestors, are unique to this work, “The Last Migration”, among other memoirs. Following the tradition of autobiographical works, the writer begins the story of the novel from the moment he scratches his eye and takes it to the first scenes around him. It is a natural process that the mind of a young child becomes more complex as he or she grows up and understands the meaning of what he or she sees.

However, the process of narration in this sense is typical from other Kazakh memoirs, one of the peculiarities of Kabdesh Zhumadilov is that from the moment of his birth he develops the story and at the same time gives an overview of the lives of his ancestors. The most obvious aspect of the author's Kazakh system of thought is the moment when he retreats to the past. The reader travels to the past, to the ancestors of that time, giving an immediate description of the child through the eyes of Kabdesh. When any Kazakh child tells a story about himself, he does not limit himself to the story, but goes on to make a genealogical survey of the past. If the speaker does not walk in that direction, the audience will inevitably turn away and be ready to ask the relevant questions. The author usually does not deviate from this process, that is the main characteristic of Kazakh psychology and national character, in the memoir novel. At first glance, one might think that the biography of the author's ancestors, the various traces left in the countryside, are very important and essential for the general reader.

Other than this, it is revealed as another trend in national genealogy, leading today's readers to contemplate carefully about their ancestry. For the next generation of readers, whose roots are becoming more and more entrenched in the Kazakh tradition, it is worth noting that the author's genealogy reflects a characteristic feature of the writer of the nation, that has a learning value. However, it remains sadly compared to other parts of the novel, the genealogy of the descendants of the same ancestor tells us that the destiny of the Kazakh people, who lived all over China, is a matter of history. If not impossible, it is rare for the author to go back in time and lose his time with space. In some places, there are moments when they refer to an upcoming event: “It is interesting that time and people do not stand still. There is only one step between heaven and hell such as, honor and suffering. Thirty-four years later, in 1989, I went to Zhair in order to taste it. I had a sister named Nurzhuzim who was sent to that country. I went to greet her. Now, let's go back to the story line.

As it was mentioned above, this is the only novel in our memoirs that provides such an in-depth study of the genealogy of our ancestors. Although we have slightly increased the volume of the work, we cannot deny the role of this genealogy to the certain extent. In contrast, Sabit Mukanov, whose storytelling and genealogy prevailed, did not dig up the history of his ancestors in his memoirs just like Kabdesh Zhumadilov. From the point of view of Soviet ideology, it was not surprising that such a wide range of genealogies were considered as old-fashioned and racist, and the vigilant ideologues gave a different tone to their content.

In the novel, the problem of the people from other nationalities was also discussed and was considered as one of the main stories along with the Kazakh people. In particular, it reveals the tragic fate of the Uyghur people in China as a herd nation and the various contradictions between the rebellious citizens and dissidents.

Mukhtar Magauin`s works are particularly created on the theme of creativity. After the writer's dilogy “I”, the Kazakh memoir, that tells in detail about the life of the writer and his creative laboratory, is also called “The Last Migration”. An artistic and historical signature of the author of the work should be acknowledged as a creative style. In his work, the writer described the richness of life in his own way: “However, I still remember the gray mare that was slaughtered, the white snow in the village, and the red blood that was sprinkled on it like a tulip. Sometimes I see that picture in a dream. I have a lot of questions and issues. I say to myself that my first perception of the outside world began with red blood, as if a different picture had been created there. What does this symbolize? What does this matter?” The historical data found in the work of art are all the significant events in the life of the author, that were given in the accurate calculations of time. On the one hand, this shows the writer's literacy in the process of data collection and it increases the reader's confidence in the story.

The title of the author's novel testifies to the main artistic principle that formed the basis of the whole line of the work. It was provided to achieve many years of a peaceful coexistence and stability in the homeland of many years. By loving the country and the land so much, the author expresses his childhood and civic feelings for his native steppe. The position of this author can be divided into several channels. First of all, the patriot dedicated this work to his people. Despite various obstacles, the book has reached its readers in independent Kazakhstan. Eight hundred copies of the first edition were distributed in Kazakhstan. With the same impulse, the book went to China and my native place East Turkestan. The criticism of the book was published in English, Russian, and Kazakh languages. He increased the number of book seekers by asking what was written in the book, that was banned in this day and age. By publishing a biography written in this foreign country, Kabdesh Zhumadilov continued to strengthen the character of the Alash people. The outside world has a lot of things to contribute into human life. Every time a person takes an inventory of his surroundings, he remembers his neighbors and the countryside. As the author warns, “It is not a work in the form of fiction”. A biography written by a Kazakh who lived abroad for fifty years.

Furthermore, the biography will be a creative, instructive, necessary not only for the author himself but also for the public.

How did the Kazakhs call this blue ridge, that stretches to the south on the sunny side of Tarbagatay mountain and it is isolated, “Bakty”? Or did the name come from the word “Happiness” in the beginning? Asili Kazeken didn't think much about naming his son: he called the child born on the Kosherbay street, and the child born in the Boranbay storm. When it came to naming the place, he used his ingenuity and experience. In many cases, the name of the place is inseparable from the object, and a magical secret lies under both of them. In these ways, you can see the ingenuity of the Kazakhs, who died during the famine and longed for the soil of their homeland, and named the valley when they returned to their motherland.

— “A person is ruled by time,

It is bad for the times.

If you give the power to get wicked,

Ardak puts the precious stone on the sole”,

He said this, by looking at his son's face. Life is like a fast-moving street. The parents bring the power of life to a certain point and pass the camel's hair to the children. This is the law of life that has not changed since Almisak. When I think about it, a father and a child are the guests for each other. During the journey of life, a father and a child visit each other. He will be a good friend for many years on the journey of life, and one day it will be enough to say goodbye... My son, it seems that you and I are close to these crossroads. Time has flickered like a razor. If you don't, you will be provoked. “Be careful, baby! Do not fall into the fire of youth. My village has moved to the ridge. I got married to the ridge”, he said. Remember this. I have not left behind the treasure. You will not need it. We have a generosity and nomadic spirit that continues from father to son. It is a spiritual legacy left to the hooves of a carpenter by his father. We can imagine a beautiful scene in which the mind has removed, the fear has overcome, and the responsibility has placed on the shoulders. It is the writer's eloquence, artistic skill, and the ability to convey the image to the reader. When you start writing this work, type the regular expressions, go to the other side of Tarbagatay while reading the novel, rejoice with each of the characters inside, and go back and forth again to type the regular expressions with each character. Basically, Kabdesh Zhumadilov is a Kazakh who did not want to repeat anyone but was able to correct the most crooked, distorted things and write without any open folds. Actually, it is the result of Zhumadilov's high level of work. The novel's title, “The Last Migration” refers to the both a one-time migration and the last hoofs of nomads in general.

At the end of the novel, the writer likens the word “Migration” to the power of the word “Migrate” that shifts the whole constitutive meeting like a burning reed, causing the country to rise. Therefore, the notion of the horse and leader, familiar to the Kazakhs for a long time, had acquired a historical poetic character. As a result of the development of the meaning of the word, there are regularities in the expansion or contraction of the meaning. The expansion of the meaning of the word is the addition of new additional meanings to the already known meaning without changing the identity of the word. It is implemented mainly through metaphorical, metonymic, and synecdoche methods.

The metaphors here arise in connection with the peculiarities of human critical thinking. If a thought is expressed in a different, deliberate way, then the metaphor arises not because it is necessary, but because it does not exist without it. It can be proved that it is inherent in human thinking and language. For example, “If you give the power to the wicked things, the honorable assets will put the noble on his feet”. The “Bad” person in the sentence is the person. It is associated with “Stingy, greedy person” in the figurative sense. It can be concluded that giving him the power will harm those around him.

A book tells the story of three families living in the forest Santas reserve. The main events take place around Momyn Shal and his daughter's abandoned grandson, Momyn Shal, and his grandmother, Momyn Shal`s son-in-law. Orazkul and his daughter aunty Bekey, forester Seydakhmet and his wife Gulzhamal. The old woman, who was taken after the death of the wife of the meek paralytic, does not show mercy to the paralyzed grandson. Her granddaughter, who noticed her, also adopted the old woman. Orazkul and Bekey are an unhappy family. because there are no children between them. Orazkul blames his wife, gets drunk, takes her under the stick and beats her. Seeing her daughter's condition, the meek one could ask God for a child and vomit. In fact, Orazkul is a negative character. He never called me a gentle father-in-law. Instead, he fired her and threatened to fire her in the blink of an eye. His job is to mow the lawn and remove the pine trees from the forest. As the name suggests, the meek is gentle. During the war, he built the walls of the factories in Magnitogorsk and became a Stakhanovite (eager beaver). After returning from the war, he built a wooden house in the reserve. He was involved in the forestry and took care of small animals and bees. No one appreciated his work, even though he was restless from morning till night. Without the name of the boss, Orazkul spends his time traveling around the country. When other bosses come, he becomes a good boss, as if he is doing all the work by himself, singing, walking in the woods, and hunting. The characters of Orazkul and Momyn Shal are completely opposite. Even though he is still a child, his grandson understands the soul of a kind and naive man. K. Zhumadilov's autobiography is considered “A devastating literary work that has lived for half a century, revived many Kazakhs, and is becoming more and more valuable” compared to the rest of the work.

The author's biography begins with the presentation of the genealogy of his parents and upbringing in accordance with the conditions of this genre. At the same time, the author has been a resident of the region known as “Xinjiang” since the Russian-Chinese partition of the present-day People's Republic of China, part of the present-day People's Republic of China. He was the only truly compassionate child, because he had never seen his father and mother. It is known that his father was a sailor on Issyk-Kul lake, and his mother divorced with his father, left the child in a meadow, and went to the distant city. The father does not spare his son. It is like a mountain for his grandson. One day, a car dealership came to the mountains. The grandfather gave the child a school briefcase from the auto shop. There was no limit to the child's joy. Being excited, he showed it to his neighbors and, as usual, took his binoculars and briefcase to the top of the mountain. Even if there was no child to play with, the child was accustomed to talking to himself. The boy was waiting for a white ship on the shores of Issyk-Kul lake. It doesn't matter where the ship leaves or goes. His dream is to become a fisher and sail. When the boy heard that his father was a sailor on Issyk-Kul lake, he believed that he worked on the same ship. The boy dreamed of becoming a man with a head and the fish. He wanted to reach his father and tell him that he is his son, how he lives in the forest, that his grandfather is the best man in the world, but everyone around him was laughing at him. Every evening, he remembered his grandfather in the fairy tale “Mother Deer”. It can be seen in the following sentences:

— “One day, I noticed that he was still staring at the caravan in front of him”.

— “Are there many these caravans that have moved to the summer pastures?” - I asked.

— “A lot”, - he answered.

— The other side of the sand is a pasture. Of course, there is no green meadow like Saryarka, but there are enough pastures for the sheep and camels...

— A shepherd on the camel was standing on the edge of the sheep grazing with wormwood. Silence is like a slap in the face. The mystery of nature that makes you think... This scene will forever be remembered by every child. Isn't that so? You can't help but love that steppe. For me, it is not just an interesting appearance. The speech patterns of each character in the work are also different. If one of them utters a word that is calm and balanced, the words of the other character are funny. The words of the characters reveal their likes and dislikes. One of the main characteristics of mature literature is the widespread implementation of the method of finding and using the language features that are suitable for each character in the novel.

Zhumadilov is a master of storytelling, binding and creating a psychological portraiture. There is no artificial name, there is a natural attraction and social background. The main pathos of the work “The Last Migration” is the love of life, passion for life and the struggle for life.

Nurbek could listen to the secret of silence. Perhaps because he was born and raised in the mountains and steppes, he knew the secret of peace—the shepherd's inexhaustible long thoughts about the motherland, the starry world, and the steppe man's advice for a long life. The winds and storms frightened the herdsmen, thunder and lightning frightened them as well; and silence was the summer of joy. It is definitely true that Nurbek could listen to the breath of the steppe and the tranquility of the steppe. And, the current silence was terrible. The silence that awaited death was silence. Most of the characters in the novel were characterized by their own words. One of them had spoken softly and curly, and the other people spoke straightforwardly without hesitation.

The main idea of every historical novel and the common point is the immeasurable struggle of the Kazakhs for the liberation. But in the Kazakh literature of the novel “The Last Migration” by K. Zhumadilov, a Kazakh who grew up in the village, saw the twists and turns of life, listened to the stories of his grandfather, and was deeply immersed in the centuries-old history of Kazakh customs. The place was special. A mother who fled from the starvation and lost her umbilical cord blood, a mother who thought of the younger generation in front of her eyes, who had no choice but was supposed to cross the border for a long time, lost one of her children and needed to see someone until the last day of her life. An image of the mother who was left alone with no relatives, who did not see the twists and turns of life. The person, who did not run out from the breast milk, and lived on the food.


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